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Trip Planner Europe  /  Turkey  /  Erzurum Province  /  Erzurum
(3.4/5 based on 500+ reviews for top 20 attractions)
Things to do: sightseeing, nature, historic sites
Erzurum is a city in eastern Turkey. It is the largest city in and the eponymous capital of Erzurum Province. The city is situated 1757 meters (5766 feet) above sea level. Erzurum had a population of 361,235 in the 2000 census, increasing to 367,250 by 2010.Erzurum, known as "The Rock" in NATO code, served as NATO's southeastern-most air force post during the Cold War. The city uses the double-headed Anatolian Seljuk Eagle as its coat-of-arms, a motif based on the double-headed Byzantine Eagle that was a common symbol throughout Anatolia and the Balkans in the medieval period.Erzurum has some of the finest winter sports facilities in Turkey and hosted the 2011 Winter Universiade.Name and etymologyDuring Roman times Erzurum was named Theodosiopolis . It got its present name after its conquest by the Seljuks following the Battle of Manzikert in 1071.A neighboring commercial city named Artsn was heavily sacked by the Seljuk Turks in 1048-49. Its Armenian, Syrian, and other Christian inhabitants moved to Theodosiopolis, which they began calling "Artsn Rum" to distinguish it from their former residence. The city's Muslim inhabitants changed the name to Arzan ar-Rum and then Erzurum. After the Arab conquest of Armenia, the city was known to the Arabs as Kālīkalā
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