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Orenburg

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Orenburg is a transcontinental city and the administrative center of Orenburg Oblast, Russia, located on the Ural River 1478km southeast of Moscow, very close to the border with Kazakhstan. Population: 548,331 (2010 Census); 549,361 (2002 Census);GeographyThe city is located at the confluence of the Sakmara and Ural Rivers. The highest point of the city is 154.4m.HistoryThe Russian Empire began plans for the expansion into Asia by construction of an eastern frontier fortress town in the southern Ural region to be named Orenburg in 1734. The colonists originally founded a settlement in 1735 at the confluence of the Ural River with the Or River. The town's name meant "fortress near the Or," as Burg is German for fortress. This settlement changed its name in 1739 to Orsk. An attempt was made to found another Orenburg about 175km west at a location called Krasnogor, or "Red Hill," in 1741, but this settlement failed. A third Orenburg was successfully established by Ivan Neplyuyev at its present location approximately 250km west down the Ural from Orsk in 1743. This third Orenburg functioned as an important military outpost on the frontier with the nomadic Kazakhs. It became the center for the Orenburg Cossacks.
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