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Bluff

Bluff, previously known as Campbelltown, is a town and seaport in the Southland region, on the southern coast of the South Island of New Zealand. It is the southernmost town in New Zealand and, despite Slope Point and Stewart Island being further to the south, is colloquially used to refer to the southern extremity of the country . According to the 2006 census, the resident population was 1,850, a decrease of 85 since 2001.The Bluff area was one of the earliest areas of New Zealand where a European presence became established. The first ship known to have entered the harbour was the Perseverance in 1813, in search of flax trading possibilities, with the first European settlers arriving in 1823 or 1824.This is the foundation for the claim that Bluff is the oldest permanent European settlement in the country. However, the missionary settlement at Kerikeri was both earlier and larger. The town was officially called Campbelltown in 1856, became a borough in 1878, and was renamed Bluff in 1917.GeographyBluff is 30km by road from Invercargill, and the southern terminus of the Bluff Branch, the continuation from Invercargill of the Main South Line. This was one of New Zealand's earliest railways, opening on 5 February 1867.Bluff is at the end of a peninsula that forms the western side of Bluff Harbour and Awarua Bay, with the port located in the relatively narrow entrance channel. It is on State Highway 1, which terminates one kilometre to the south of the town at Stirling Point. At Stirling Point there is a signpost showing the distance and direction to various major cities and locations around the world, including the Equator and the South Pole.
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