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Penapolis

Penápolis is a municipality in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The population is of 58,510 inhabitants (IBGE/2010). The city has an area of 710.8 km².Historical formationThe region was first populated by the Crowned Indians . The first presence of the Brazilian State in the region was, in the end of the 19th century, a military colony in the Salto do Avanhandava, that was nicknamed "Banishment".The Patrimony appeared in donated lands, in 1906, by the Farmer Eduardo Jose de Castilho, to the priests Capuchinhos. These and the enterprising colonel Manuel Bento de a Cruz had established the Patrimony of Santa Cruz of the Avanhandava, in 25 October 1908.Immediately afterwards, in 2 December 1908, the patrimony became a new town.The pioneers had found its biggest obstacles in the attacks of the Indians and the malaria. The Indians alone finally had been pacified with the action of colonel Candido Rondon.Administrative historyIn 17 November 1909, the patrimony was raised as a district, and became Vila de Pennapolis, in honour to the just-deceased president Afonso Pena. It became a city in 22 December 1913. It was raised to a judicial district in 10 October 1917. The installation of the judicial district occurred in 27 July 1918.The original territory of the city of Penápolis was vast, going until the River Paraná, but much of it was reduced with its successive dismemberments in new cities.EconomyAt the beginning of its population boom, the forest, coffee, sugar cane, cattle industries, carriage and railroad transport were the base for the economy of the city. Later came the dairy industry. Currently it relies on alcohol-sugar agro-industry, an industrial district and a strong private educational sector.
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